学术论文

      中国非常规油气勘探开发与理论技术进展

      Progress in China's Unconventional Oil & Gas Exploration and Development and Theoretical Technologies

      摘要:
      新世纪非常规油气获战略突破,微纳米孔喉页岩系统油气成为油气资源接替的重要新领域,非常规油气资源在能源格局中的地位愈发重要。致密气、煤层气、重油、沥青砂等已成为勘探开发的重点领域,致密油成为亮点领域,页岩气成为热点领域。中国在致密气、页岩气、致密油、煤层气等非常规油气资源勘探开发获重要突破,油页岩、天然气水合物、重油、油砂矿等获重要进展,初步评价中国非常规石油资源量(223~263)×108 t,天然气资源量(890~1260)×1012 m3。中国非常规油气研究取得重大进展,细粒沉积学在陆相敞流湖盆大型浅水三角洲砂体、湖盆中心砂质碎屑流沉积、海陆相细粒沉积等研究新进展,提供了盆地中心储集体形成和分布的理论依据;非常规储层地质学在研究方法技术、多尺度数据融合、地层条件物理模拟等方面取得重大进展,多方法多尺度整体表征非常规储层已成为研究热点,推动了非常规油气地质学地质理论和方法技术快速发展;创新发展了连续型油气聚集理论,构建了非常规油气地质学理论体系框架,明确了非常规油气地质研究的内涵、地质特征、形成机理、分布规律和核心技术,为大面积非常规油气规模勘探开发奠定了理论基础;非常规油气勘探开发技术方法快速发展,涌现了烃源性、岩性、物性、脆性、含油气性与应力各向异性评价等“六特性”、“甜点区”地质-工程综合评价等核心评价方法,微地震监测、水平井钻完井、“工厂化”生产、“人工油气藏”等开发工程核心理念和技术,推动非常规油气“革命性发展”。非常规油气的突破,带来了坚持理论创新、坚持核心技术进步等4点重要启示,对延长石油工业生命周期、推动理论技术升级换代、改变能源格局具有深远意义。
      Abstract:
      The new century has witnessed a strategic breakthrough in unconventional oil & gas.Hydrocarbon accumulated in micro-/nano-scale pore throat shale systems has become an important domain that could replace current oil &gas resources.Unconventional oil & gas plays an increasingly important role in our energy mix.Tight gas,CBM,heavy oil and asphaltic sand have served as a key domain of exploration &development,with tight oil becoming a'bright spot'domain and shale gas becoming a'hotspot'domain. China has made great breakthroughs in unconventional oil & gas resources,such as tight gas,shale gas, tight oil and CBM,and great progress in oil shale,gas hydrate,heavy oil and oil sand.China has an estimated (223~263)×108 t of unconventional oil resources and (890~1260)×1012 m3 of gas resources. China has made a breakthrough for progress in unconventional oil &gas study.New progress achieved in fine-grained sedimentary studies related to continental open lacustrine basin large-scale shallow-water delta sand bodies,lacustrine basin central sandy clastic flow sediments and marine-continental fine-grained sediments provide a theoretical basis for the formation and distribution of basin central reservoir bodies. Great breakthroughs have been made in unconventional reservoir geology in respect of research methodology & technology,multi-scale data merging and physical simulation of formation conditions. Overall characterization of unconventional reservoirs via multi-method and multi-scale becomes increasingly popular and facilitates the rapid development of unconventional oil & gas geological theory,method and technology.The formation of innovative,continuous hydrocarbon accumulation theory,the establishment of the framework of the unconventional oil & gas geological theory system,and the determination of the implications, geological feature, formation mechanism, distribution rule and core technology of unconventional oil &gas geological study lays a theoretical foundation for extensive unconventional oil &gas exploration and development.Theories and technologies of unconventional oil & gas exploration and development developed rapidly, including some key evaluation techniques such as'sweet spot zone'integrated evaluation and a six-property evaluation technique that uses hydrocarbon source,lithology, physical property,brittleness,hydrocarbon potential and stress anisotropy,and some key development &engineering technologies including micro-seismic monitoring, horizontal drilling & completion and "factory-like"operation pattern,"man-made reservoir"development,which have facilitated the innovative development of unconventional oil & gas.These breakthroughs define a new understanding in four aspects:①theoretical innovation;② key technologies;③ complete market mechanism and national policy support;and ④ well-developed ground infrastructure,which are significant for prolonging the life cycle of petroleum industry,accelerating the upgrade and development of theories and technologies and altering the global traditional energy structure.
      Author: ZOU Caineng YANG Zhi ZHU Rukai ZHANG Guosheng HOU Lianhua WU Songtao TAO Shizhen YUAN Xuanjun DONG Dazhong WANG Yuman WANG Lan HUANG Jinliang WANG Shufang
      作者单位: 中国石油勘探开发研究院,北京,100083
      刊 名: 地质学报 ISTICPKU
      年,卷(期): 2015, (6)
      机标分类号: TE1 P61
      在线出版日期: 2015年8月5日
      基金项目: 国家973重点基础研发项目,国家科技重大专项(编号2011ZX05001)联合资助的成果。