Error sources which decrease the accuracy of GPS in absolute velocity determination have been changed since SA was turned off. Firstly, quantities of all kinds of error sources that influence velocity determination are analyzed. The potential accuracy of GPS absolute velocity determination is derived from both theory and field GPS data simulation. After that, two tests were carried out to evaluate the performance of GPS absolute velocity determination in the case of a static and an airborne GPS receiver and INS (Inertial Navigation System) instrument in kinematic mode. In static mode, the receiver velocity has been estimated to be several mm/s with the carrier-phase derived Doppler measurements, and several cm/s with the receiver generated Doppler measurements. In kinematic mode, GPS absolute velocity estimates are compared with the synchronized measurements from the high accuracy INS. The root mean square statistics of the velocity discrepancies between GPS and INS come up to dm/s. Moreover, it has a strong correlation with the acceleration or jerk of the aircraft.