In order to investigate performance characteristics of variable thickness scroll compressor, a new profile based on involute of circle, high curve and arc is presented. The change of the working chamber volume with respect to the orbiting angle is derived. A detail mathematical modeling based on energy and mass balance is established. Suction gas heating, radial and flank leakage, heat transfer between the fluid and scroll wraps are considered in the mathematical modeling. Temperature, pressure, and mass of working chamber are investigated by solving the mathematical modeling. The experiment rig for variable thickness scroll compressor is set up. From the comparison of the simulated and measured data, it can be seen that the compressor model predicts the mass flow, discharge temperature and shaft power very well. So the proposed mathematical modeling can accurately describe all the suction, compression and discharge processes for variable thickness scroll compressor. The results provide a strong and useful tool for quantitative analysis, optimization, promotion the performance of variable thickness scroll compressor.