学术论文

      STEM教育理念与跨学科整合模式

      STEM Education and lts Model for lnterdisciplinary lntegration

      摘要:
      随着创客日益受到社会关注,开展创客教育已成为教育界讨论并实践的热点。创客教育不能滑入到在中小学推广创造发明的歧途,而应是推进跨学科知识融合的STEM教育,在帮助学生打好扎实的科学、技术、工程和数学知识的基础之上,培养学生创新精神与实践能力,促进创新型、创业型人才的成长。本文阐述了STEM教育的跨学科、趣味性、体验性、情境性、协作性、设计性、艺术性、实证性、技术增强性九个核心理念,介绍了相关课程、广域课程两种跨学科整合模式,分析了三种跨学科整合的取向:学科知识整合取向、生活经验整合取向、学习者中心整合取向,并提出了跨学科整合的项目设计模式。
      Abstract:
      Today, Maker Education has been a hot topic in both educational discussions and practices. Instead of wrongly advocating direct creation and invention in primary and secondary schools, Maker Education should promote integrated STEM Education. In other words, maker education should foster students’ creativity, hands-on, and en-trepreneurship based on the learning integrating contents of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. This article introduces the meaning and development of STEM Education, and then clarify nine core features of STEM Edu-cation. Specifically, the nine features are:(1) interdisciplinary ( putting emphasis upon integrated interdisciplinary contents rather than every isolated subjects); (2) fun ( selecting fun problems or projects to appeal students); (3) process experience ( making students learn by doing and experiencing);(4) contextual ( learning in a real-life con-text to avoid rote learning);(5) cooperative ( allocating several students into one group to finish complex tasks by sharing respective knowledge and energies);(6) designability ( designing their products based on questions and re-quirements);(7) artistic ( paying attention to humanity and social sciences when engaging in STEM Education);(8) empirical ( verifying hypothesis, solving problems, and designing products based on empirical evidences); and (9) technology-enhanced ( employing various technologies to promote learning and improve students’ technological literacy) . After that, two types of interdisciplinary curriculum integration models are introduced:the Correlated Cur-riculum remains as an independent subject while the Broad Fields Curriculum breaks the boundaries of subjects, in-tegrates them into a new learning field through activities, and forms a new curriculum structure. Then, three direc-tions of interdisciplinary curriculum integrations, i. e. , disciplinary content oriented, life experience oriented, and learner-centered oriented, are discussed and analyzed. Lastly, the article proposes a design pattern for interdiscipli-nary integration projects based on constructivism, cognitive science, and core features of STEM Education in order to guide future practices.
      作者: 余胜泉 胡翔
      Author: YU Shengquan HU Xiang
      作者单位: 北京师范大学 教育技术学院,“移动学习”教育部-中国移动联合实验室,北京100875
      刊 名: 开放教育研究 PKUCSSCI
      Journal: Education Research
      年,卷(期): 2015, (4)
      分类号: G434
      机标分类号: B84 G44
      在线出版日期: 2015年9月17日
      基金项目: 教育部高校科技战略(教育信息化)研究课题“教育信息化对教育革命性影响的内涵、标志和路径研究”项目。