This paper expounds the present situation of wood and bamboo preservation from the aspects of the current preservatives and modification methods used to provide the necessary protection for wood and bamboo. It points out the development prospects and existing problems in the field of wood and bamboo preservation. Wood preservatives are still mainly based on copper and thus various methods have been developed to improve its fixation and decay re-sistance. The use of non-metallic formulations that contain boron salts, organic fungicides and natural extracts has be-come a new direction for research and application in most countries, with more attention focused on improving the leaching resistance of boron-based preservatives. Besides, wood modification continues to be a promising method in increasing its durability. Among all the wood preservative treatments, pressure treatment is the most popular method. Again, bamboo preservatives and processing technologies have gradually arisen to be placed higher on the priority list, special preservatives and treatments have been developed since wood and bamboo protection are indispensable parts of outdoor materials. Hence, research progress should be focused on the consideration of environmental impacts such as soil microbes, light, moisture, temperature and humidity fluctuation on decay and degradation of preservatives. In ad-dition, the research on the distribution of preservative and mechanisms against decay fungi has played an important role in optimizing the fixation and effectiveness of the preservatives against decay fungi.