学术论文

      小兴安岭不同林型的昆虫多样性

      Insect Diversity of Different Forest Types in Xiaoxing’anling Mountains

      摘要:
      【目的】研究昆虫多样性对不同林型的生态响应,为小兴安岭森林生态可持续发展规划、森林经营、森林生物多样性保护提供理论基础和科学依据。【方法】2013年5—9月,每15天1次,采用扫网法并结合震落法和观察法对云杉人工林(YR)、白桦天然次生林(B)、红松人工林(HR)、椴树红松林(DY)、云杉红松林(YY)和枫桦红松林(FY)6种不同林型的昆虫多样性进行调查,通过昆虫群落结构分析、多样性特征指数及时间动态分析、稳定性分析、主分量分析、群落相似性分析等系统研究小兴安岭凉水自然保护区森林昆虫物种多样性及群落结构动态。【结果】共采集昆虫标本4599号,隶属9目67科188种;各林型昆虫群落均以膜翅目和双翅目为优势类群;各林型昆虫群落的多样性指数均较高,其中云杉原始林和云杉人工林的多样性指数和均匀度均相对较高,优势度均相对较低。各林型昆虫群落多样性指数与均匀度指数随季节变化趋势均表现出显著一致性(0.708~0.955,P <0.05),与优势度指数随季节变化趋势均表现出极显著负相关(-0.863~-0.983,P <0.001),多样性指数与丰富度指数变化趋势除 YR外,均表现为较大的正相关,多样性指数与群落个体数量时间变化趋势仅在 YY、DY 和 B 林型中表现出较大的正相关。各林型昆虫群落的相对稳定性存在一定差异,St/Si的比值序列为 YY >YR >B >FY >DY>HR,Sn/Sp的比值序列为 YR=HR>FY>B>YY>DY,YY、YR的稳定性相对较好,森林环境质量相对较高,而DY、HR的稳定性相对较差,森林环境质量相对较低。全年各林型昆虫群落中不同营养类群物种数均表现为植食性类群最多,个体数量表现为 YR 中性昆虫类群最多,YY 中植食性类群最多,其他林型均以捕食性类群最多。昆虫群落主分量分析结果表明,YY和 YR昆虫群落中中性昆虫物种数是主导昆虫群落变化的最主要因子,在 DY 和HR昆虫群落中转变为植食性昆虫个体数和物种数。在稳定性居中的 B 和 FY 中,主导群落变化的最主要因子由中性昆虫个体数转变为植食性昆虫个体数。聚类分析结果表明,在度量值为10时,可将6种林型的昆虫群落分为2类: B、YY和 YR聚为一类,HR、DY和 FY聚为一类。【结论】虽然各林型昆虫多样性均较为丰富,且昆虫群落均较为稳定,反映出较好的生态环境质量,但是 HR和 DY稳定性相对较低,建议增加植物多样性以提升第一营养层昆虫个体数量;DY植食性昆虫比例较大,建议采取一定措施增加天敌昆虫丰富度,以提升昆虫群落稳定性。
      Abstract:
      Objective]This research aims at providing theory and scientific evidence for the forest sustainable development,management and biodiversity conservation in Liangshui Nature Reserve,Xiaoxing ’anling Mountains,by surveying the responsion of the insect community to the ecological environment of six forest types. [Method]To systematically study the diversity and structure of insect community in Liangshui Nature Reserve, the structure, characteristic indexes of diversity,temporal dynamics,stability,principal components and similarity were investigated by the sweep-net,shaking-off and observation methods from May 2013 to September 2013,in the present study. Sample locations included spruce plantations ( YR ) ,natural secondary birches forest ( B ) ,Korean pine plantation ( HR ) ,&nbsp;linden-Korean pine (DY),picea-Korean pine (YY) and maple birch-Korean pine forest(FY). [Result]A total of 4, 599 insects belonging to 188 species,67 families and 9 orders,were collected in the six forest types,among which Hymenoptera and Diptera were the dominant groups. The insect diversity indexes in the six forest types were relatively high. The diversity index and evenness index in YR and YY were higher,while the dominant concentration were lower than that in other forest type. In all sample locations,the diversity index ( H') of the insect community had significantly consistent seasonal variation trend was with the evenness index ( J ) ( r =0. 708 ~0. 955 ,P <0. 05 ) ,and negatively correlated with the dominant concentration index (C) (r = -0. 863 ~ -0. 983,P<0. 001). The diversity index (H') of the insect community also was significantly correlated with the richness index ( S ) ,except the forest type of YR. While,the diversity index ( H') of the insect community in YY,DY,and B was significantly correlated with the individual number. There was difference in the insect community stability calculated by different method. The St/Si ratio showed that the community stability was in a decrease order YY > YR > B > FY > DY > HR,while,the Sn/Sp ratio showed YR=HR > FY > B > YY > DY. The above results showed that the insect community stability was higher in YR and YY,but lower in HR and DY. In forest insect communities of every forest type,defoliator insect community was always the most divers. In YR,the individual number of neutral insects was most divers. While,in YR,the individual number of phytophagous insects was the most. In other four forest types,the individual number of predatory insects was always the most. The principal components analysis indicated that the dominant factor of community in YY and YR,was species number of neutral insects. While,in DY and HR,the individual and species numbers of phytophagous insects were the dominant factors. In B and FY,the dominant affective factor of community first was the individual number of neutral insects,and then changed into individual number of phytophagous insects. Cluster analysis showed that the all insect communities were able to be divided into two major communities in the surveyed six forest types. One community contains the insect communities in B,YY and YR. The other community occurs in other three forest types ( HR,DY and FY) .[Conclusion]The results of this study showed that the insect community stability of HR and DY,was lowest among the all forest types. It would be useful to increase the plant diversity for increasing the individual number of insects in the first nutritional layer. In DY,the largest insect community was phytophagous,therefore,the insect community stability should be enhanced by increasing the richness of the natural enemy insects.
      作者: 马玲 [1] 问荣荣 [1] 焦玥 [1] 刘雪英 [1] 张静 [2] 刘哲强 [1] 顾伟 [1] 满子源 [1] 张曼胤 [3]
      Author: Ma Ling [1] Wen Rongrong [1] Jiao Yue [1] Liu Xueying [1] Zhang Jing [2] Liu Zheqiang [1] Gu Wei [1] Man Ziyuan [1] Zhang Manyin [3]
      作者单位: 东北林业大学林学院 哈尔滨150040 黑龙江农业经济职业学院 牡丹江157041 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所 北京100091
      刊 名: 林业科学 ISTICPKU
      年,卷(期): 2016, 52(2)
      分类号: Q968.1
      机标分类号: S71 S15
      在线出版日期: 2016年4月27日
      基金项目: 东北林业大学学术名师项目,国家自然科学基金项目,中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(2572014BA06)。