学术论文

      不同施肥处理下小麦季潮土氨挥发损失及其影响因素研究

      Ammonia volatilization from fluvo-aquic clay soil and its influencing factors during wheat growing season un-der different fertilization

      摘要:
      氨挥发是肥料氮素损失的重要途径之一,由于土壤类型、气候条件、肥料种类、用量和施用时间等因素不同而存在很大差异。试验采用间歇式密闭室通气法,对华北平原不同施肥处理(新鲜牛粪与尿素配施、堆腐牛粪与尿素配施和NPK单施)下,冬小麦生长季粘质潮土氨挥发及其影响因素进行了研究。结果表明:冬小麦季土壤氨挥发总量占肥料氮用量的1.23%~1.97%,主要来源于追肥,占整个小麦生长季氨挥发总量的80%左右。不同施肥处理强烈影响氨挥发强度,新鲜牛粪与尿素配施处理氨挥发损失量最高,氮素损失率为1.97%,显著高于堆腐牛粪与尿素配施和NPK单施。基肥期氨挥发速率与气温密切相关,追肥期土壤含水量和NH+4-N浓度是影响氨挥发的主控因子。
      Abstract:
      Ammonia(NH3)volatilization is a major path of N losses from applied nitrogen fertilizers, which not only results in economic loss-es, but also poses risks to the environment. A field experiment was set up in Yutian county, Hebei Province, to evaluate the NH3 volatiliza-tion in fluvo-aquic clay soil under applications of different fertilizers. There were four treatments with four replicates per treatment:fresh cow manure+urea(RAW), composted cow manure+urea(COM), NPK fertilizer(NPK), and control with no N fertilizer(CK). The manures and chemical fertilizer were applied at a rate of 225 kg N·hm-2, with half mixed into the soil as basal fertilization before planting and the other half applied to the soil as a top dressing after plant emergence. A continuous air-flow enclosure method was used to monitor NH3 volatilization rates during a winter wheat growing season. The highest cumulative amount of NH3 volatilization during the wheat growing sea-son was measured in the RAW treatment with a net loss through NH3 volatilization of 1.97%of the N applied, which was significantly higher than that in the COM and NPK treatments. Up to 80%of the total NH3 volatilization occurred after top-dressing. Soil temperature was iden-tified as a key factor affecting NH3 volatilization during the basal fertilization period and the flux of NH3 volatilization was significantly cor-related with soil moisture and NH+4-N contents after top-dressing.
      作者: 肖娇 [1] 樊建凌 [2] 叶桂萍 [1] 刘德燕 [2] 阎静 [3] LUO Jia-fa [4] HOULBROOKE David J [4] 丁维新 [2]
      Author: XIAO Jiao [1] FAN Jian-ling [2] YE Gui-ping [1] LIU De-yan [2] YAN Jing [3] LUO Jia-fa [4] HOULBROOKE David J [4] DING Wei-xin [2]
      作者单位: 土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室 中国科学院南京土壤研究所,南京 210008; 中国科学院大学,北京 100049 土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室 中国科学院南京土壤研究所,南京,210008 恒天然 北京 牧场管理咨询有限公司,北京,100006 Land and Environment,AgResearch,Hamilton 3240,新西兰
      刊 名: 农业环境科学学报 ISTICPKU
      年,卷(期): 2016, 35(10)
      分类号: X511
      机标分类号: S15 S51
      在线出版日期: 2016年10月26日
      基金项目: 新西兰恒天然-中国科学院国际合作项目International Collaborative Research on Dairy Farm Waste application to land supported by Fonterra (Beijing)Farm Management Consulting Co. Ltd