On-site recycling of straw is an important method of soil fertility management in farmland. Straw is not only habitat for soil fauna, but also as a main source of litter. However, little is known about the effect of straw recycling on the community structure of soil fauna. In or-der to better understand the influence of straw recycling on community structure of soil Oribatida in black soil, an experiment was conducted in black soil farmland in Northeast China. Soil samples were collected from 0~20 cm soil layer under straw recycling for 4 years(SR4), 10 years(SR10)and conventional tillage(CK)in June and October of 2014 and 2015 and a modified Tullgren method was used to extract soil mites from the soil samples. A total of 11 366 soil mites were captured on four sampling dates, of which 8373(74%)were Oribatida. The den-sity of soil Oribatida was SR4:13 774 per square meter, 15 families SR10:11 946 per square meter, 12 families and CK:5871 per square meter, 7 families. Straw recycling, season, and the interaction between straw recycling and season all had significant(P<0.001)effects on individual density of soil Oribatida, but not on the number of families of Oribatida. Straw recycling also significantly affected the richness in-dex, the evenness index, the diversity index, the dominance index and the density-groups index of Oribatida. The density of the dominant species of soil Oribatida in autumn were generally higher than those in summer. Cluster analysis also showed that the Oribatida communities in SR4 and SR10 were significantly different from CK, but not from each other. Our results indicated that straw recycling is conducive to maintaining the diversity and density of soil Oribatida communities, and to the protection of ecological environment and fertility of the soils.