学术论文

      土壤通气性与加氧灌溉研究进展

      Advancement in Research on Soil Aeration and Oxygation

      摘要:
      水、肥、气、热是保障土壤肥力的四大要素,传统的灌溉方式往往忽视了气这一重要因素.土壤通气性不足,四个因素之间的平衡被打破,土壤理化性质变差,对作物生长造成不利影响,进而引起减产.良好的土壤通气性是作物正常生长发育的保证.加氧灌溉通过采用合理的方法改善土壤通气状况,协调土壤四大要素之间的关系,提高土壤肥力,满足作物生长的需要.研究表明,加氧灌溉可提高作物产量、改善作物品质.本文从根区低氧胁迫的影响分析人手,评述了土壤通气性的量化指标、测算方法和控制标准,综述了加氧灌溉技术及其应用,总结了加氧灌溉研究中存在的问题,探讨了加氧灌溉对土壤通气性的改善作用,提出了加氧灌溉与土壤通气性研究展望,以期为今后的研究提供参考.
      Abstract:
      Water,nutrients,gas and heat are the four main factors in soil to ensure soil fertility.Traditional irrigation management often ignores the importance of soil aeration.Hypoxia stress is often attributed to soil compaction,high ground water table or unreasonable irrigation.Under hypoxia stress,plants declined in aerobic respiration with part plant root dying,and leaves atrophying,thus leading to a low water and nutrient use efficiency.As an integrated index of soil permeability and status of soil oxygen,soil aeration represents one of the overall properties of soil fertility,which reflects the relationships between soil biological oxygen consumption,carbon dioxide production and gas exchange between soil and atmosphere.Insufficient soil aeration would surely disturb the balance between the four factors of soil fertility,making the soil deteriorating in soil physical and chemical properties,which in turn negatively affect crop growth and yield.Irrigation displaces air in soil pores with water,causing temporal hypoxia,which may be localized and last a long time,particularly in heavy clay soils,where a wetting front is maintained due to frequent pulsing irrigation events.A system,termed oxygation or aerated irrigation,has been developed,mixing pure oxygen,air bubbles or hydrogen peroxide solution into the irrigation water that flows and carries oxygen to the plant root zone.Researches have demonstrated that oxygation or adding oxygen into irrigation water may improve crop yield and quality.In order to explore mechanism of the improvement by oxygation,this review begins with the effects of hypoxia stress on soil biology,crop physiology and crop production,and influencing factors,quantitative indicators and evaluation criteria,and measuring and calculating methods of soil aeration.Then it summarizes characteristics,application methods,and biological effects of different oxygation technologies,and furthermore,problems existing in the researches.Besides,it discusses effects of oxygation or aerated irrigation on soil aeration.In the end,it brings forth prospects of the researches on oxygation or aerated irrigation in anticipation of providing some reference for future researches.
      Author: LEI Hongjun HU Shiguo PAN Hongwei ZANG Ming LIU Xin LI Ke
      作者单位: 华北水利水电大学水利学院,郑州,450045
      刊 名: 土壤学报 ISTICPKU
      年,卷(期): 2017, 54(2)
      分类号: S151
      在线出版日期: 2017年6月21日
      基金项目: 国家自然科学基金-河南人才培养联合基金,河南省科技创新杰出青年基金,华北水利水电大学博士研究生创新基金资助 Supported by the NSFC-Joint Research Fund of Henan Province,the Excellent Youth Foundation of Henan Scientific Committee,the NCWU Ph.D Student Innovation Fundation