水下滑翔机依靠调节浮力实现升沉, 借助水动力实现水中滑翔, 是一种特殊的无人水下航行器, 可对复杂海洋环境进行长时续、大范围的观测与探测, 在全球海洋观测与探测系统中发挥着重要作用.文中综述了国内外水下滑翔机技术的发展现状, 重点介绍了水下滑翔机单机平台及其核心技术的研究进展, 并对支撑水下滑翔机动力学与控制领域的研究进行了归纳.此外, 依据国内外具有代表性的成果, 对水下滑翔机协作组网观测技术进行了概述, 并详细介绍了水下滑翔机小型低耗传感器设计与集成技术的发展应用, 阐述了水下滑翔机数据格式与协议领域的发展现状.最后, 从水下滑翔机功耗优化, 通信及智能化水平的提升等领域, 对水下滑翔机技术未来的发展趋势进行了展望.
As a kind of special autonomous undersea vehicle, the underwater glider(UG) dives along a saw-tooth trajec-tory by adjusting the buoyancy and maintains its gliding mode by making use of hydrodynamic force. It can real-ize continuous observation and detection in long range and large scale in the complex ocean environment. Therefore, UG plays an increasingly important role in the novel global ocean observation and detection systems. In this paper, the recent development status of underwater glider technology both at home and abroad is reviewed with emphases on the research progress of the single UG platforms and the corresponding core techniques. And the studies on UG's dynam-ics and control are summarized. Moreover, according to the representative research achievements in the world, this paper gives an overview of the UG-networked observation technology, and elaborates the design, development and application of the compact low-power sensor used in UGs, as well as the development in data format and protocol of UG. In addition, development prospect of UG technology is presented concerning promotion of power consumption optimization, com-munication and intelligent level of UGs.