学术论文

      新常态下我国生态环保监管体制改革的问题与建议--国际借鉴与国内创新

      Issues and Suggestions of China Ecological Environmental Preservation Regulatory Reform under the New Normal-International Reference and Domestic Innovation

      摘要:
      我国生态环境监管体制,横向上具有统一监督管理与各部门分工负责相结合的特点,纵向上具有中央与地方的分级监督管理相结合的特点,与我国经济社会发展的水平相适应。但也存在一些问题,如横向职能分散,缺乏有效协调;纵向监管乏力,执行约束不足;社会和市场参与不足,多元共治的环保体制尚未健全。域外具有环境保护监管职能趋向独立和综合、环境保护和其他邻接领域监管职能趋向合并、环境保护职能趋向分散三类代表性体制,体现权威性加强、集中与分散相结合、强调协调与合作等发展趋势。我国生态环境监管体制改革,横向上可以赋予环保部门宏观调控、综合协调、监督执法、公共服务的职能和协调权;纵向上加强国家一级的环保监督管理能力,保障落实省一级的环保责任。为了建立自然资源节约、生态保护和污染防治统一监督管理的机制,有必要恢复设立国家和地方环境保护委员会及其办公室,明确地方各级环境保护部门的统一监督管理职责,在地方各级环境保护局内设立统一监督管理机构,优化相关领域的自然资源、生态保护和环境污染防治监管体制机制,明确专门监管与综合监管失职的责任和责任追究机制等。
      Abstract:
      In China the Ecological environment regulatory regime, with the feature that laterally a combination of unifi ed supervision and management and division of the responsibility, while, longitudinally a hierarchical supervision and management of the central and the local, adapts to the level of our economic and social development. However, there are some issues, such as cross-functional dispersion, the lack of effective coordination, implementation constraints, social and market participants, and the weak longitudinal supervision, which lead to an incomplete multi-party environmental governance system. The foreign environmental regulatory regime has three representative characteristics—functions tend to be independent and comprehensive, environmental protection and other adjacent portion regulatory functions go to merge, environmental preservation functions tend to disperse. The trends refl ect the strengthened authority, combining centralization and decentralization, and emphasis on coordination and cooperation. Ecological environment supervision regime reform in China, can empower environmental protection departments in macro-control, comprehensive coordination, supervision and law enforcement, also public service functions. What’s more, we can strengthen environmental supervision and management capacity at the national level, to guarantee the implementation of environmental responsibility at the provincial level. It is necessary to restore the national and local environmental protection committee and its office, in order to establish unified supervision and management mechanisms of natural resource conservation, ecological protection and pollution prevention and control. The institute will clear unified supervision and management responsibilities of local environmental protection departments at all levels, with the establishment of unified supervision and management institutions within the office. It can also help to optimize related fields’ natural resources, ecological protection and pollution prevention regulatory regime and mechanisms, by specifying the dereliction of duty and accountability mechanisms of specialized and comprehensive regulatory and so on.
      作者: 常纪文
      Author: Chang Jiwen
      作者单位: 国务院发展研究中心资源与环境政策研究所,北京,100010
      刊 名: 中国环境管理
      年,卷(期): 2015, (5)
      分类号: X32
      机标分类号: F83 F82
      在线出版日期: 2015年11月6日