Objective To survey and analyze the epidemiological status of diabetes in Nanchong area, and provide the evidence for the policy and measures of preventing and controlling diabetes. Methods The medical records of 1547 patients with diabetes in the last 10 years were retrieved from the Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College. The demographic information and disease situation were investigated and analyzed including sex, profession, living condition, educational background and family history. Results The average age of diabetes attack was (57.76±16.85) years old, and diabetes occurred mostly in the patients aged from 50 to 70. The age of diabetes attack was higher in the male than that in the female (P>0.05). The age of diabetes attack increased by 5.08 years old in the patients in urban areas than those in rural areas[(59.52±10.36)y vs. (54.44±8.96)y, P<0.01]. The distribution of diabetes population was influenced by profession, educational background and family history, which showed as the proportions of peasants (29.71%) and retired persons (26.87%) were higher, patients with elementary or junior middle school education reached the peak (66%), and the age of diabetes attack increased by 3.25 years old in the patients without family history than those with family history [(58.06±11.07)y vs. (54.81± 7.51), P<0.05]. Conclusion In Nanchong area, the diabetic patients are mainly middle-aged and elderly people. Male patients and female patients have no difference in attack age, and attack age is higher in urban patients than rural ones. The incidence of diabetes is higher in the patients with poorer educational background and diabetic or hypertensive history.